Research Tools

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) supports extensive research in the area of health economics, including cost effectiveness and cost-utility survey and studies.  These tools are available to researchers and policy makers around the world to further understanding of the burden of this musculoskeletal disease.

Recommendations for the conduct of economic evaluations in osteoporosis

Recommendations deriving from an expert consensus meeting provide guidance for the design, conduct and reporting of economic evaluations in osteoporosis, with the aim of improving transparency, comparability and methodologic standards. Download the paper

Swedish Cost-effectiveness Model

This model has been developed for Sweden by i3 Innovus (formerly European Health Economics). The purpose of the model is to serve as a tool for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. In particular the model is intended to be used for the evaluation of health care technologies affecting the risk of fracture. It can also be used for validating existing and new models. Read more

International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic Fractures Study (ICUROS)

The purpose of ICUROS is to investigate the consequences of osteoporosis-related fractures in terms of costs and health related quality of life (QoL) in an international perspective. Specifically, the objective is to estimate the cost and QoL following hip fracture, vertebral fracture and wrist fracture in various countries. Read more about ICUROS.

Quality of Life Questionnaires

The IOF Quality of Life Questionnaires are comprised of QUALEFFO-41 (a quality of life questionnaire in patients with vertebral fractures) and the WRIST FRACTURE QUESTIONNAIRE (a quality of life questionnaire in patients with wrist fractures, intended to be used as a supplement to Qualeffo-41).

QUALEFFO-41 is currently available in 23 languages and the Wrist Fracture Questionnaire is available in English, German, French, Greek and Dutch. Access the questionnaires

Disease Model for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

This country adaptable model can be used to forecast the incidence and prevalence of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. For information read Development and validation of a disease model for postmenopausal osteoporosis.  

Also see: Estimation of the burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the UK from 2010 to 2021